I send you a good paper that prove my transformation and my quantization of gravity is completely right and agreed completely also with Hafele-Keating. The Hafele–Keating experiment was a test of the theory of relativity. In October , Joseph C. Hafele, a physicist, and Richard E. Keating, an. I teach physics, and I love the Hafele-Keating experiment as a way to introduce relativity. Because the experiment has a lot of charisma, it’s cool to be able to.
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They flew twice around the world, first eastward, then westward, and compared the clocks against others that remained at the United States Naval Observatory.
The time difference was measured by direct clock comparison at the ground before and after the flight, as well as during the flight by laser pulses of 0.
Scientific papers describing the Hafele-Keating experiment Hafele and Keating, “Around the world atomic clocks: General relativity’s prediction of the gravitational effect was confirmed in by Pound and Hafeke. XVII, 2 The expected time dilation on clocks used by Hafele and Keating is shown below in Fig.
Does this not make the fixed stars a physically privileged reference frame? Contains some muddy reproductions of photos, e. Because of this, no matter how he orients his loop, the measured speed of light around it will never be exactly C, and will differ in each direction.
The actual result was that the westward travelled clock increased in its time rate more time had elapsed and the eastward travelled clock decreased in its time rate. I’ve obtained and scanned copies some of these and posted them here.
Since the aircraft flew at roughly the same altitude in both directions, this effect was approximately the same for the two planes, but nevertheless it caused a difference in comparison to the clocks on the ground. The problem encountered with measuring the difference between a surface clock and one on an aircraft is that neither location is really an inertial frame. Ives—Stilwell experiment Moessbauer rotor experiments Experimental testing of time dilation Hafele—Keating experiment Length contraction confirmations.
When reunited, the three sets of clocks were found to disagree with one another, and their differences were consistent with the predictions of special and general relativity. Index Hafele and Keating. Consider the diagram in Fig. In his original paper on special relativity Einstein suggested a possible test of the theory: In the course of digging up the photos, I ended up compiling some other links and information.
The following description would seem to be implied from the explanation of Hafele, Keating and Builder. All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June As Hafele and Keating say in their paper, inertial motion must be referenced to a universal reference frame. There is a web site and mailing list Time Nuts for people who do high-precision timing experiments for fun, and they have a museum with old photos and documentation.
The difference in the times compared to our hypothetical master clock would then be Now this relationship is just the reverse of the actual experiment, since we have assumed that the clock is at the center of the earth, whereas the actual clocks are in the frames which are moving with respect to the center.
These photos show a plane and set of atomic clocks used in a experiment by Alley et al. Keatingan astronomer, took four cesium-beam atomic clocks aboard commercial airliners.
Kinematic Time Shift Calculation If the kinematic time dilation expression is expanded in a binomial expansionthen for small velocities it becomes This expression can be used to compute the time dilation in the Hafele-Keating experiment in which an atomic clock was taken aboard an aircraft and compared to a ground-based closk.
The difference in the times compared to our hypothetical master clock would then be.
Information about the copyright of the photo that appeared in Popular Mechanics. Naval Observatory technicians George Luther and Bill Dabney boarding a commercial plane with an atomic clock.
However, in all other directions it is off by up to 20x the predicted value. Because the Hafele—Keating experiment has been reproduced by increasingly accurate methods, there has been a consensus among physicists since at least the s that the relativistic predictions of gravitational and kinematic effects on time have been conclusively verified. An article from later in the decade, describing the golden age of experimental tests of general relativity during the lead-up to the construction of the GPS system.
The results were verified to a higher degree of accuracy. In OctoberJoseph C. Explorations in Mathematical Physics: General relativity predicts an additional effect, in which an increase in gravitational potential due to altitude speeds the clocks up. When reunited, the three sets of clocks were found to disagree with one another, and their differences were consistent with the predictions of special and general relativity.
I have retouched the photo, but that retouching is not copyrightable under U. Since the Hafele—Keating experiment has been reproduced by increasingly accurate methods, there has been a consensus among physicists since at least the s that the relativistic predictions of gravitational and kinematic effects on time have been conclusively verified. This corresponds to an average height of m, a reasonable flight altitude for a commercial airline.
The Hafele—Keating experiment was a test of the theory of relativity. Measurements in which the only effect was gravitational have been conducted by Iijima et al. This page was last edited on 21 Decemberat During the times when the clock stayed at Mitaka, it was compared with another cesium clock. Thence we conclude that a balance-clock at the equator must go more slowly, by a very small amount, than a precisely similar clock situated at one of the poles under otherwise identical conditions.
Five flights were carried out, each of 15 hours duration. A Question of Time”. The time shift is positive aging faster for both eastward and westward flights.
The height and velocity terms were predicted by Einstein in and — however the Sagnac term haffele unknown to Einstein when he wrote his papers on special relativity, so this effect was never anticipated by Einstein. The predicted value of ns for the westward flight of In the setup on the left, the speed of light is measured as C.
Hafele and Keating, “Around the world atomic clocks: The equation is displayed below: It gives an experimental answer to the twin paradox. Hartle says, “A correct picture of Hafele and Keating [the one shown above] on their initial flight is below.